Inks and Substrates

Substrate Tradename Examples Sample Applications

Polymers

Polyamide (Nylon) Vestamid, Grilamid Sensing electrodes on balloon catheter

Polybenzimidazole PBI Cauterization probes, sensing electrodes

Polycarbonate Makrolon, Calibre, Lexan Sensing electrodes on surgical device

Polyester (PET) Tritan, Mylar, Celanex, Teijin, Melinex Ablation balloons (cardiac, renal); leads on cardiac ablation wire guide

Polyester (Liquid Crystal Polymer) Vectra Heater and thermistor

Polyether-amide PEBAX Catheter stimulation and sensing; RF ablation catheters

Polyetherether ketone Vestakeep, PEEK-Optima Heater

Polyetherimide Ultem Stimulation electrodes on catheter, visualization marks

Polyhydroxyalkanoate Biopol, Mirel Visualization marks

Polyimide Kapton Sensing electrodes on catheter

Polyphenylsulfone Radel, Udel, Fortron Cauterization probes, sensing electrodes

Polyurethane Texin, Pellethane, Tecoflex, Carbothane, Chronoflex Capsule antenna, electrode on sheath, visualization marks

Polyvinyl chloride Dural, Nakan, Colorite Sensing on endotracheal tube, thermocouples

Polyvinylidene Fluoride Kynar, Dyflor Visualization

Poly(p-xylylene) Parylene Balloon electroporation stimulation electrodes

Silicone SilMedic, BioSil, Silikophen, MED-series Atrial ablation balloon, flexible brain stimulation electrode

Silicone-Urethane copolymer Elast-Eon, Carbosil, Pursil Stimulation electrodes on catheter, visualization marks

Siliconized PVC Endotracheal tube sensing electrodes

Fiberglass Stimulation electrodes

Fluoroelastomer Viton Conductive cable leads

Styrene-Butadiene Styrolux Opthalmic electroporation stimulation electrodes

Metals

Stainless steel 316SS, 304SS, 420SS Dielectric spacers, cauterization probes

Titanium

Silicon

Ceramics

Alumina RF Ablation probes, Cauterization probes

Aluminum Nitride

Silica Pyrex, Glass, quartz

Yttria-stabilized Zirconia Cauterization probes